15 March 2021
China map
Risk Level: Current Crisis
Approximately one million Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslim minorities are currently being detained in “re-education” or “de-extremification” facilities

The persecution of Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities in China may amount to crimes against humanity and genocide.


Under the guise of combatting religious extremism and terrorism, in recent years the government of China and authorities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) have increased their repression of members of the ethnic Uyghur (or Uighur) community, as well as Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other Muslim minorities. China’s policies have resulted in large-scale arbitrary detention, severe restrictions on religious practice and pervasive surveillance of the Muslim population.

An estimated 1 million Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities have been detained in “re-education” or “de-extremification” facilities without formal charges or due process. During September 2020 the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) released a report that identified more than 380 suspected detention facilities in XUAR, including so-called “re-education” camps, detention centers and prisons, that have been built or expanded since 2017. On 2 February the BBC published evidence of widespread and systematic rape, sexual abuse and torture of ethnic minorities in detention facilities. An estimated 250,000 children under the age of 15 in XUAR have lost one or both parents to detention, with many placed in state-run orphanages or boarding schools.

During March 2020 ASPI reported that over 80,000 Uyghurs are also working under “conditions that strongly suggest forced labor,” with many transferred directly from detention camps to factories. Other reports have identified 135 detention facilities in Xinjiang that have on-site factories where detainees are reportedly forced to work. The factories are part of supply chains that allegedly provide goods for 82 global brands, including Apple, BMW, Nike and Samsung. On 14 December the Center for Global Policy published new evidence on coerced labor in Xinjiang’s cotton sector, where hundreds of thousands of ethnic Uyghurs and other minorities are forced to work. As Xinjiang produces 20 percent of the world’s cotton, the findings have grave implications for global supply chains.

The Chinese government is also conducting a campaign to forcibly reduce birth rates among Uyghurs and other Muslim populations in XUAR. According to investigations, the practice has been widespread since 2017 and includes forced abortions and sterilizations. Authorities have also engaged in the systematic destruction of Uyghur cultural heritage, including by demolishing shrines, cemeteries and pilgrimage sites. Approximately 16,000 mosques have been destroyed or damaged as a result of government policies.

Chinese authorities monitor the daily lives of almost all Uyghurs by collecting DNA during medical checkups, surveilling mobile and online communications, and installing a GPS tracking system on all vehicles. Data is used to profile individuals prior to sending them to “re-education” camps. The Associated Press published leaked information that demonstrates that the Chinese government focused on religious devotion as one of the main reasons for detention, including activities such as fasting, praying or regularly attending mosque.

These measures have been imposed in conjunction with increased restrictions on religious practice. In March 2017 XUAR authorities passed the “Regulation on De-extremification,” which prohibits a range of “extreme” behaviors, such as “abnormal” beards. Leaked government documents reveal that the crackdown in Xinjiang was a result of pressure from senior officials, including President Xi Jinping. The Communist Party Secretary of XUAR, Chen Quanguo, subsequently intensified Uyghur persecution and expanded the detention camps. Despite this, the Chinese government has denied genocide and persecution of the Uyghurs and banned media agencies, including the BBC, who have exposed abuses in Xinjiang.


Under customary international law and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, the widespread or systematic persecution of Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities on religious, cultural, ethnic and gender grounds; the large-scale detention program; abuse of detainees; forced sterilization; and denial of information regarding the fate of persons in state custody in XUAR could constitute crimes against humanity.

The Chinese government also appears to be intentionally perpetrating at least four acts prohibited under Article II of the Genocide Convention: “imposing measures intended to prevent births” within a targeted group; “causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;” “deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;” and “forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.”

The government of China is failing to uphold its responsibility to protect and is perpetrating possible crimes against humanity and genocide against Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities.


The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, has requested that China allow her office to carry out an independent assessment of reports of enforced disappearances and arbitrary detentions. On 26 June 2020 a group of 50 UN Special Procedure mandate holders called for the establishment of an impartial and independent UN mechanism to monitor and report on the grave human rights situation in China. On 6 October Germany delivered a statement to the UN General Assembly’s Third Committee on behalf of 39 governments, calling on China to allow independent observers “immediate, meaningful and unfettered access to Xinjiang” and refrain from arbitrarily detaining Uyghurs and other minorities.

On 12 January Canada and the United Kingdom announced a set of measures to prohibit products that profit from Uyghur forced labor from entering their countries. On 19 January the United States (US) became the first government to formally declare that China is committing genocide and crimes against humanity against the ethnic Uyghur population and members of other Muslim minority groups. This declaration followed numerous economic measures taken by the US government, including a 13 January decision to ban the import of all cotton and tomato products if they are produced in Xinjiang.

During February the parliaments of Canada and the Netherlands passed motions recognizing that China’s treatment of the Uyghur minority constitutes genocide. The Canadian Parliament adopted an amendment asking Canada to urge the International Olympic Committee to move the 2022 Winter Olympics from Beijing if China continues its repression of the Uyghurs.

During the 46th regular session of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC) several governments condemned China’s treatment of ethnic minorities in Xinjiang.


The government of China should immediately halt widespread violations and abuses of human rights in XUAR and repeal the “Regulation on De-extremification.” The authorities should release all Muslims being arbitrarily detained in “re-education camps” and related facilities. The authorities must end the enforced separation of Uyghur children from their families, stop the practice of forcibly preventing births, and cease the deliberate destruction of Uyghur cultural heritage.

The Chinese government should grant unfettered access to the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. The HRC should mandate a Special Rapporteur or Fact-Finding Mission to investigate systematic violations of human rights in XUAR.

Recognizing the important influence they may have, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Muslim-majority countries and neighboring states should urge China to respect the rights of minorities and cease their persecution of the Uyghur population. All UN member states should ban imports of products produced with forced labor in Xinjiang.


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