Cameroon

1 March 2022
Risk Level: Current Crisis
646,000+ people displaced by conflict in the north-west and south-west regions

Civilians in the Anglophone regions of Cameroon continue to face atrocity crimes due to widespread violence between government forces and armed separatists.

BACKGROUND:

In 2016 English-speaking lawyers, students and teachers in Cameroon began protesting against their cultural marginalization by the Francophone-dominated government, leading to a violent crackdown by security forces. In October 2017 Anglophone separatists proclaimed independence and declared a new state of “Ambazonia” in the north-west and south-west regions of Cameroon. Since then, armed separatists and Cameroonian security forces have continued to clash, resulting in widespread abuses against the civilian population by both sides to the conflict.

Security forces have perpetrated extrajudicial killings, burned Anglophone villages and subjected individuals with alleged separatist ties to torture and ill-treatment. Security forces have also been accused of widespread sexual and gender-based violence. Armed separatists have also perpetrated abuses, including kidnapping and killing civilians. Since 2016 more than 4,000 civilians and hundreds of members of the security forces have been killed in the Anglophone regions. Separatists have banned government education and frequently attack, threaten and abduct students and teachers, as well as burn, destroy and loot schools. Eighty percent of schools in the north-west and south-west regions are closed or destroyed, denying at least 700,000 children an education.

Armed separatist groups have also perpetrated attacks on Fulani communities, forcing 12,000 people to flee and killing 250 since 2016. Fulani vigilante committees, established in response to these attacks, have allegedly collaborated with the government’s military operations against the separatists.

Since the start of 2021 the security situation has deteriorated due to increased fighting between government forces and armed separatist groups. Approximately 30 percent of health facilities are unable to operate, with at least 29 reported attacks on facilities in the north-west and south-west regions between January-June 2021. A significant increase in targeted attacks on humanitarian workers also restricted the delivery of vital aid. Meanwhile, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and kidnappings have increased. Between January-May 2021 separatists carried out at least 27 IED attacks in 13 towns, more than in all previous years of the crisis combined. During December humanitarian actors reported at least 11 IED explosions, including on markets and trade fairs, that resulted in civilian casualties.

Limited attempts have been made to find a solution to the conflict. During June 2019 Switzerland mediated peace talks which were followed by a national dialogue organized by President Paul Biya that October. In February 2021 Cardinal Pietro Parolin, Secretary of State of the Vatican, visited Cameroon and announced the readiness of the Catholic Church to facilitate a dialogue between the government and separatist groups. During October Cameroon’s prime minister, Joseph Dion Ngute, visited the Anglophone regions to call for peace but added that those who refuse to lay down their weapons will be killed.

With more than 200 different ethnic communities living in Cameroon, there is a history of inter-communal tensions in some parts of the country. In the Far North region, at least 44 people were killed, 100,000 displaced and 112 villages burned down in December 2021 during a series of violent clashes between Arab Shoa cattle herders and Massa farmers and Mousgoum fishermen in Kousseri, Logone and Chari. During August similar clashes erupted in Kousseri, leaving 45 people dead and more than 23,000 forcibly displaced. In the north-west, tensions between the Muslim Mbororo/Fulani herders and Christian farming communities, particularly in the Bamenda Grassfields area, have led to violent clashes.

The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) estimates that at least 573,900 people have been internally displaced by violence in the north-west and south-west regions, while more than 72,900 have fled to Nigeria. According to OCHA, 2.2 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance.

ANALYSIS:

The targeting of individuals based upon their cultural identity poses a direct threat to Anglophone and Francophone civilians and may amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity. The government continues to deny the severity of the crisis and has failed to address the root causes of the conflict or provide a political means for resolving it. The increasing use of heavy weaponry, including IEDs and anti-tank rocket launchers, demonstrates a dangerous shift in the capacity of armed separatist groups to perpetrate atrocities.

The Anglophone and Francophone areas of Cameroon have been unified since 1961, but there have been long-term disputes over the extent to which access to government resources is controlled by the French-speaking majority. Although the Anglophone minority constitutes 20 percent of the population of Cameroon, they are a majority in the north-west and south-west. What began as a political dispute in the Anglophone regions is now a complex armed conflict and a major humanitarian crisis.

Inter-communal tensions and violence in the Far North region have been exacerbated by the climate crisis. In the last few decades, growing desertification has led to water scarcity and limited access to grazing land, fueling clashes and tensions between Arab Shoa cattle herders, Massa farmers and Mousgoum fishermen.

The government of Cameroon is failing to uphold its responsibility to protect and requires international assistance to mediate and end the armed conflict.

INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE:

Despite the government’s failure to protect populations from violations and abuses of human rights, or to hold security forces accountable for extrajudicial killings, during October 2021 Cameroon was re-elected to the UN Human Rights Council for the 2022-2024 term.

On 13 May 2019 the UN Security Council (UNSC) held an Arria Formula meeting on the crisis in Cameroon, its first and only meeting on the situation.

On 1 January 2021 the United States Senate adopted Resolution 684, calling on the government of Cameroon and armed separatist groups to end all violence, respect human rights and pursue an inclusive dialogue to help resolve the conflict in the Anglophone regions.

On 25 November the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the situation in Cameroon, condemning human rights abuses and violations of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and urging parties to the conflict to agree on a humanitarian ceasefire.

On 5 December the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights adopted a Resolution on the “continuing Violation of Human Rights Situation in the Republic of Cameroon,” calling upon the government to work towards a peaceful solution to the ongoing crises and to authorize a Fact-Finding Mission.

NECESSARY ACTION:

Security forces must end all extrajudicial killings of unarmed civilians and ensure that the human rights of all Cameroonians are equally protected, regardless of cultural identity. Security forces implicated in violations of IHL and International Human Rights Law (IHRL) should be investigated and held accountable. Armed separatist groups must also halt attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure.

In order to work towards a negotiated solution to the crisis in the Anglophone regions, the government should hold an inclusive dialogue mediated by a neutral player on neutral territory. The government must also invest in programs that meaningfully address the root causes of inter-communal violence.

The government of Cameroon should grant the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights immediate and unfettered access to the Anglophone regions to investigate potential violations and abuses of IHRL. Foreign governments and regional organizations should suspend all military assistance to Cameroon until its security forces have made demonstrable progress towards upholding the human rights of all Cameroonians. The African Union and Economic Community of Central African States should work with the government to prevent any further deterioration of the armed conflict. The UNSC should add Cameroon to its formal agenda.

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