Cameroon

15 March 2020
Risk Level: Current Crisis
700,000+ people have been internally displaced in the North-West and South-West regions

Civilians in the Anglophone regions of Cameroon continue to face mass atrocity crimes due to widespread violence between government forces and armed separatists. The armed extremist group Boko Haram also poses an ongoing threat.

BACKGROUND

Political conflict over cultural rights and identity have escalated in Cameroon’s Anglophone regions since 2016 when English-speaking lawyers, students and teachers began protesting against their under-representation and cultural marginalization by the Francophone-dominated government. Security forces violently repressed the protests, resulting in arbitrary arrests, sexual violence and the killing of civilians in the north-west and south-west regions.

Clashes between government forces and armed Anglophone separatists intensified during the lead-up to municipal and parliamentary elections on 9 February. Security forces were accused of burning several Anglophone villages and of indiscriminately shooting civilians. Armed separatists have also been responsible for killings and abductions. During the voting period armed separatists ordered a “lockdown” on towns in the north-west and south-west regions, threatening any civilians who attempted to vote. On 14 February at least 22 civilians, including 14 children, were killed in the village of Ntumbo in the north-west region. Evidence suggests that government forces were responsible for the massacre.

The political crisis in Cameroon has been deepening since October 2017 when Anglophone separatists proclaimed independence, declaring a new state of “Ambazonia.” The Anglophone and Francophone areas of Cameroon were unified in 1961, but there have been long-term disputes over the extent to which access to government resources is controlled by the French-speaking majority. Although the Anglophone minority constitutes 20 percent of the population of Cameroon, they are a majority in the north-west and south-west regions.

Since October 2017 at least 650 civilians, 235 members of the security forces and nearly 1,000 alleged separatists have reportedly been killed as a result of the armed conflict. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs estimates that as of 31 January at least 679,393 people have been internally displaced in the north-west and south-west regions, while 51,000 have fled to neighboring Nigeria.

Throughout the conflict there has been extensive evidence of the security forces perpetrating extrajudicial killings and burning Anglophone villages. Individuals detained by the government for alleged separatist ties are reportedly subjected to torture and ill-treatment. Armed separatist forces have also perpetrated abuses, including kidnapping and killing civilians. Due to a ban on government education by the separatists, 80 percent of schools in the two regions have closed and at least 74 have been destroyed.

Despite international pressure to resolve the conflict and an attempt by President Paul Biya to organize a national dialogue, the crisis continues. In an attempt to ease tensions, during October the government released 333 prisoners from the Anglophone region, as well as opposition leader Maurice Kamto. On 21 December Cameroon’s parliament proposed a bill that would grant “special status” to the Anglophone regions. The elections on 9 February were supposed to contribute to the decentralization of power.

The armed extremist group Boko Haram is also active in the Lake Chad Basin region that includes Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. During 2019 the group committed atrocities in the far north of Cameroon, including the killing of at least 225 civilians, as well as abductions and mutilations. During military operations against Boko Haram there have been widespread allegations of the security forces perpetrating extrajudicial killings. In the far north region ongoing violence has displaced over 270,850 people.

ANALYSIS

The targeting of individuals based upon their cultural identity poses a direct threat to both Anglophone and Francophone civilians. Persistent attacks on civilians by both armed separatists and the security forces may amount to crimes against humanity.

The government of Cameroon continues to deny the severity of the crisis and has failed to address the root causes of the Anglophone conflict or provide a political means for resolving it. Although the legislation proposed on 21 December would grant the north-west and south-west regions special status, the Senate has yet to approve the legislation and it has already been rejected by armed separatists.

The government of Cameroon is failing to uphold its responsibility to protect and requires international assistance to mediate and end the armed conflict in the north-west and south-west regions.

INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE

Despite the government’s failure to protect populations from violations and abuses of human rights or to hold security forces accountable for extrajudicial killings, during October 2018 Cameroon was elected to the Human Rights Council (HRC) for the 2019-2021 term. Following a visit to Cameroon, on 6 May 2019 the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights urged the government to hold accountable members of the security forces who commit serious human rights abuses.

On 13 May the UN Security Council held its first Arria Formula meeting on the humanitarian and human rights situation in Cameroon.

On 14 October the Council of the European Union reiterated that, “the primary responsibility for protecting the population and maintaining security lies with the Cameroonian authorities.”

On 17 February 2020 UN Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the killings in Ntumbo and called upon the government “to conduct an investigation and to ensure that those responsible are held accountable.”

The UN’s Special Representatives on Children and Armed Conflict, Sexual Violence in Conflict, and Violence Against Children, as well as the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, issued a joint statement on 21 February deploring human rights abuses committed against civilians in the south-west and north-west regions of Cameroon.

NECESSARY ACTION

The security forces must end all extrajudicial killings of unarmed civilians and ensure that the human rights of all Cameroonians are equally protected, regardless of language, cultural identity or political affiliation. Armed separatist groups must also halt attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure. The government and armed separatists should immediately negotiate a ceasefire.

The government of Cameroon should grant the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights immediate and unfettered access to the north-west and south-west regions to investigate potential violations and abuses of International Human Rights Law. Foreign governments and regional organizations should suspend all military aid to Cameroon until its security forces have made demonstrable progress in upholding the human rights of vulnerable populations.

In order to work towards a negotiated political solution to the crisis in the Anglophone regions, the government should hold an inclusive dialogue mediated by a neutral player on neutral territory. The African Union and Economic Community of Central African States should work with Cameroon’s government to prevent any further deterioration of the armed conflict.

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