Populations At Risk

The Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect applies an atrocity prevention lens to situations where populations are experiencing, or are at risk of, genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity or ethnic cleansing. For each population at risk we provide a background on the situation, an analysis of the factors putting populations at risk of mass atrocities, a timeline of the international response and a set of recommended actions to protect populations and prevent further crimes.

R2P Monitor

R2P Monitor is a bimonthly bulletin applying the atrocity prevention lens to populations at risk of mass atrocities around the world. You can download the latest report or read the updates and analysis on each country below.

Current Crisis


Populations in Afghanistan remain at risk of mass atrocity crimes as the Taliban continues its armed conflict with the government. Other armed extremist groups also threaten civilians.
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Civilians in the Anglophone regions of Cameroon continue to face atrocity crimes due to widespread violence between government forces and armed separatists. The armed extremist group Boko Haram also poses an ongoing threat.
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The persecution of Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities in China may amount to crimes against humanity and genocide.
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Democratic Republic of the Congo

Various armed groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to perpetrate crimes against humanity, resulting in the largest displacement crisis in Africa.
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Central Sahel (Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger)

Populations in the Central Sahel – Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger – face potential atrocity crimes as a result of attacks by Islamist armed groups and security forces, as well as growing conflict between ethnic militias and community self-defense groups.
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Parties to the conflict in the Tigray region have perpetrated possible crimes against humanity and war crimes. Populations across Ethiopia are also at risk as a result of a surge in ethnically motivated attacks.
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Myanmar (Burma)

Populations in Myanmar are facing crimes against humanity perpetrated by the military following the 1 February coup.
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Populations continue to face war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by various state forces and non-state armed groups in Syria's decade-long conflict.
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Ongoing state-sanctioned persecution in Venezuela amounts to crimes against humanity.
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War crimes are being committed in Yemen as pro-government forces and a regional military coalition fight against Houthi rebels who still control much of the country.
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Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Crimes against humanity continue to be committed by state authorities against North Korean civilians.
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Serious Concern

Central African Republic

Ongoing violence by armed groups leaves populations in the Central African Republic at risk of atrocity crimes.
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Civilians in Eritrea continue to face the threat of systematic and widespread violations of human rights that may amount to crimes against humanity.
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Attacks by armed extremists from "Al-Shabaab" leave populations in Mozambique at risk of atrocity crimes.
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Increased attacks by Boko Haram and inter-communal violence in Nigeria's "Middle Belt" region leave civilians at risk of mass atrocity crimes.
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South Sudan

Despite the formation of a Transitional Government of National Unity, the risk of recurring armed conflict between government forces and armed rebel groups, as well as increased inter-communal violence, poses a threat to civilians in South Sudan.
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Populations in Sudan, especially in the Darfur region, continue to face atrocity risks posed by armed groups and inter-communal violence.
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Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories

Widespread human rights violations and abuses, as well as recurring armed conflict between Israel, Hamas and other Palestinian armed groups, poses an ongoing threat to civilians in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories.
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Previously Studied


The new government in Burundi must address structural risk factors for mass atrocities, including ending state-led repression, persecution and impunity for past atrocities.
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Civilians in Libya faced war crimes and crimes against humanity as a result of ongoing fighting between rival armed groups and competing governmental authorities.
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Nagorno-Karabakh (Armenia/Azerbaijan)

Potential war crimes were perpetrated during the 27 September - 9 November conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
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Côte d'Ivoire

Increased hate speech and political instability following the October 2020 presidential elections in Côte d’Ivoire leaves populations at risk of inter-communal violence and potential atrocities.
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Populations in Iraq suffered mass atrocities and violations of international law by various armed forces and non-state armed groups in the context of mass protests during 2019 and a 2014-2017 conflict.
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The Philippines

During the government's "war on drugs" the Philippines National Police and armed vigilantes perpetrated extrajudicial killings that may amount to crimes against humanity.
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Central Africa (The Lord's Resistance Army)

For more than three decades, the Lord's Resistance Army has perpetrated mass atrocities against populations in the Central Africa.
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Political and ethnic tensions in Guinea have previously left populations at risk of mass atrocity crimes.
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The government of Nicaragua committed possible crimes against humanity during its response to mass protests between April and August 2018.
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Amidst political unrest during 2013 Egyptian security forces perpetrated widespread abuses against civilians that may amount to crimes against humanity. ISIL has also threatened religious minorities throughout Egypt.
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Al-Shabaab and various armed forces have perpetrated attacks against populations which may amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity.
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Sectarian attacks in Pakistan have left civilians at risk of potential mass atrocity crimes.
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Between 10 June and 14 June 2010 at least 420 people were killed and 400,000 forcibly displaced during violence between ethnic Uzbeks and ethnic Kyrgyz in southern Kyrgyzstan.
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Sri Lanka

A lack of accountability for war crimes and other atrocities committed during Sri Lanka's long civil war continues to hamper reconstruction and reconciliation efforts.
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Post-election violence in 2007-2008 left 1,133 Kenyans dead and over 663,000 displaced, but led to state wide structural reforms to avoid a recurrence of violence during future elections.
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Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect

Ralph Bunche Institute for International Studies
The Graduate Center, CUNY
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