Since the Syrian crisis began in 2011 the conflict between the government and opposition groups has escalated into a civil war where over 465,000 people have been killed. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, as of December 2017 there were 5.5 million Syrian refugees and at least 6.1 million internally displaced persons - the largest number of people displaced by any conflict in the world. Over 13.1 million Syrians remain in dire need of humanitarian assistance, with 3 million people in inaccessible areas, including at least 420,900 people trapped in 10 besieged communities. The vast majority of these besieged civilians - an estimated 94 percent - are in eastern Ghouta.
For six years the Human Rights Council (HRC)-mandated Commission of Inquiry (CoI) has reported that government forces have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity as a matter of state policy. Numerous armed opposition groups have also committed war crimes and violated International Humanitarian Law (IHL). On 6 September 2017 the CoI reported that a number of local ceasefire deals negotiated by parties to the conflict have resulted in the forced displacement of civilians.
Despite political negotiations in both Geneva and Astana aimed at ending the civil war, fighting between Syrian government forces and armed opposition groups has continued, most notably in the north of the country and the suburbs of Damascus. The besieged opposition-held enclave of eastern Ghouta has experienced increased shelling and airstrikes since late October, resulting in hundreds of deaths. At least 126 civilians were killed within the enclave between 28 December and 8 January alone. Additionally, 12 percent of children under five years old within eastern Ghouta are suffering from acute malnutrition – the highest rate recorded across Syria since the start of the conflict. Overall, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) documented the deaths of 700 civilians during December.
On 17 October 2017 the Syrian Democratic Forces, a coalition of armed opposition groups, recaptured the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's (ISIL) self-proclaimed capital of Ar-Raqqa city following an offensive launched on 6 June with air support from a United States-led international military coalition. Throughout the offensive ISIL used civilians as human shields and often shot those trying to flee areas under its control, while airstrikes by the coalition also caused significant civilian casualties. Of the estimated 300,000 people in Raqqa before the civil war, at least 270,000 fled or were forcibly displaced. On 2 November the Syrian government also recaptured Deir-Ezzour, the last major city held by ISIL within Syria.
Although ISIL no longer controls any cities within Syria, it continues to pose a threat to civilians, and its fighters have carried out crimes against humanity, including mass killings and sexual enslavement, in areas under their control. According to the SOHR, ISIL has killed at least 3,700 civilians in Syria since June 2014.
The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons-Joint Investigative Mechanism (OPCW-JIM) determined that Syrian government forces used chlorine gas in three separate incidents between 2014 and 2015 and that ISIL was responsible for two sulfur-mustard attacks during 2015 and 2016. The use of chemical weapons is a war crime and also directly contravenes UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 2118. The OPCW-JIM's final report determined that the Syrian air force was likely responsible for a 4 April 2017 sarin attack on the town of Khan Shaykhun, in which more than 80 people, including children, were killed. The OPCW also detected sarin-related chemicals in Ltamenah after a 30 March.
Russia, Iran and Hezbollah militias continue to provide essential economic and military support to the Syrian government. Since September 2015 Russian airstrikes have largely targeted opposition forces and civilian areas outside government control, despite the Russian government claiming their operations are focused on ISIL. The SOHR reported that Russian airstrikes have killed 4,726 ISIL fighters and over 6,486 civilians, including 1,595 children, as of 30 December. According to the SOHR, airstrikes by the United States-led coalition have also killed at least 3,000 civilians since September 2014.
All sides in Syria remain committed to military victory and the lives of countless civilians are imperiled by the ongoing civil war. Attacks on medical facilities and civilian infrastructure, as well as the use of illegal weapons, demonstrate a complete disregard for IHL and International Human Rights Law and directly contravene UNSC Resolutions 2286 and 2139. Any local ceasefire agreements reached by the Syrian government and opposition groups that result in the involuntary transfer of civilian populations constitute a violation of IHL.
The Syrian government, with support from its international allies, continues to utilize its military resources to retain power at all costs. The direct participation of Russian and Iranian forces in numerous attacks on civilian populated areas makes them complicit in alleged war crimes. The surge in civilian casualties during United States-led coalition airstrikes on ISIL also raises serious concerns regarding potential violations of IHL.
Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Qatar continue to provide crucial assistance to some armed opposition groups. However, the fracturing and radicalization of the opposition compounds the difficulty of achieving a negotiated political settlement. Meanwhile, ISIL and several other armed groups pose an ongoing threat to civilians, especially those from minority religious communities.
The UNSC has been unable to enforce compliance with its resolutions, with bitter divisions over Syria evident amongst the permanent members. Despite the current political impasse, Russia, United States, Iran, Turkey and Saudi Arabia remain essential to any potential negotiated settlement of the conflict.
The government of Syria has not only manifestly failed to uphold its Responsibility to Protect, it bears primary responsibility for the ongoing commission of mass atrocity crimes.
Following the outbreak of violence during March 2011, the international community responded by censuring the Syrian government for its widespread violations of human rights. The CoI, former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and UN High Commissioner for Human Rights have all called for the situation in Syria to be referred to the International Criminal Court.
Despite this, the UNSC has failed to adequately respond. Since 2013, the UNSC has passed resolutions on humanitarian access, peace talks and chemical weapons in Syria. Several of these refer to the government's responsibility to protect populations, but none have been fully implemented. Meanwhile, Russia and China have jointly vetoed six UNSC draft resolutions and Russia has independently vetoed a further five resolutions. On 16 and 17 November Russia vetoed two draft resolutions that would have renewed the mandate of the OPCW-JIM. As a result, the mandate expired on 17 November. On 19 December the UNSC renewed Resolution 2165, authorizing cross-border and cross-conflict-lines humanitarian access in Syria until January 2019.
On 21 December 2016 the UN General Assembly voted to establish an International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism (IIIM) to assist in the investigation and prosecution of perpetrators of atrocities in Syria. The HRC has adopted 23 resolutions condemning atrocities in Syria. The latest, adopted on 27 September, called upon all member states to actively support the IIIM. The resolution also demands the Syrian authorities uphold their responsibility to protect the population.
In keeping with various UNSC resolutions, Syrian government forces, armed opposition groups and international parties to the conflict must facilitate unimpeded humanitarian access to all civilians trapped or displaced by fighting. The UNSC must take proximate steps to halt atrocities and help end the civil war. The UNSC should demand UN access to monitor designated "de-escalation zones" in order to ensure the wellbeing of civilians.
UN member states should fully cooperate with the IIIM and facilitate its work through the provision of voluntary funding. The IIIM should be incorporated into the UN's regular budget.
Russia, Iran and Hezbollah must cease enabling the crimes of the Syrian government. Countries opposed to the rule of President Bashar al-Assad must withhold all support from armed groups who commit war crimes and target civilians.
Foreign states participating in airstrikes against ISIL must ensure all necessary precautions are taken to avoid civilian casualties and that all military operations are fully consistent with international law. All potential violations, including possible war crimes, must be thoroughly investigated and the perpetrators held accountable.
Last Updated: 15 January 2018