Populations at Risk
Populations in Afghanistan are at growing risk of mass atrocity crimes as the Taliban regains territory in its ongoing armed conflict with the government.
Since the Taliban was overthrown in 2001 by a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) coalition of military forces, it has conducted an insurgency against the internationally recognized Afghan government. While making substantial military gains during 2017, the Taliban has perpetrated indiscriminate attacks on civilians. According to the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), civilians living in Taliban-controlled territory suffer widespread human rights abuses, including the use of civilians as human shields, recruitment of child soldiers and extrajudicial killings.
UNAMA's midyear report documented the deaths of 1,662 civilians during the first six months of 2017. According to UNAMA, attacks by the Taliban and other anti-government forces remain the leading cause of casualties, but all parties to the conflict continue to use mortars, rockets and other explosive weapons in civilian-populated areas. The UN Secretary-General's annual report on children and armed conflict documented 3,512 children killed or maimed in 2016, marking an increase of 24 percent compared to the previous year. Afghanistan has recorded the highest number of verified child casualties since the UN started documenting civilian casualties in 2009.
During 2016 the International Criminal Court (ICC) reported that the Taliban has potentially committed crimes against humanity and war crimes against civilians, particularly those perceived as supporting the Afghan government and foreign forces opposed to Taliban rule. According to the ICC, Afghan security forces and members of the United States' armed forces and intelligence services may have also committed war crimes, including torture of detainees.
As the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) faces military defeat in Syria and Iraq, some members – designated the ISIL Khorasan (ISIL-K) - have begun to establish safe havens in remote districts of Afghanistan. ISIL-K has claimed responsibility for several recent terrorist attacks.
According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 7.4 million people in Afghanistan are in need of humanitarian assistance and over 266,000 people are internally displaced due to ongoing armed conflict.
The Taliban, which ruled Afghanistan from 1996-2001, is an armed Sunni extremist movement. As the Taliban regains territory across Afghanistan, the number of civilians at risk of possible war crimes and crimes against humanity increases. During their sixteen-year war, both government forces and the Taliban have shown disregard for international humanitarian law (IHL). However, while government forces have attempted to decrease civilian casualties, Taliban and ISIL-K attacks on populated areas and civilian infrastructure continue to rise.
Unless sustained action is taken to address corruption, marginalization and political tensions within the Afghan government, conflict and insecurity will continue to grow.
The Afghan government needs ongoing international support to uphold its Responsibility to Protect.
At the July 2016 NATO Summit in Warsaw, member states pledged to sustain their mission in Afghanistan beyond 2016 and to continue their assistance to Afghan security forces until 2020. The United States currently has 11,000 troops in Afghanistan, and on 21 August President Donald Trump announced additional troops will be deployed shortly.
UNAMA was established under UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1401 of 2002 and its mandate includes monitoring human rights violations and the protection of civilians in armed conflict. UNAMA's mandate has been renewed until 17 March 2018. Since 2011 the UNSC has imposed an arms embargo and sanctions on individuals or entities who support the Taliban and its affiliates in Afghanistan.
The international community should continue to provide support to the Afghan government to help combat the Taliban, ISIL-K and other armed extremist groups within the country. Promoting good governance and the rule of law remains essential to this strategy.
The Afghan security forces and all international military forces operating within Afghanistan must prioritize the protection of civilians and strictly adhere to international humanitarian and human rights law.
The government and its international partners should fully cooperate with the ICC's preliminary investigation of alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity in Afghanistan.
Last Updated: 15 October 2017