BACKGROUND:Violence against civilians is pervasive throughout the Central African Republic (CAR) despite the deployment of French forces, an African Union (AU) peacekeeping mission (MISCA) and a European Union (EU) military operation.
The Muslim population is being systematically targeted by the predominantly Christian and animist "anti-balaka" militias and mobs of civilians. Formed largely in response to abuses by the Séléka rebel alliance, the predominantly Muslim armed group who overthrew former President Francois Bozizé on 24 March 2013, anti-balaka militias have conducted deadly reprisals against Muslims and other groups and are responsible for the majority of civilian deaths in CAR.
On 5 June the UN Commission of Inquiry released its preliminary report on the CAR crisis, which concluded that ample evidence exists that individuals from both sides of the conflict have committed violations of international humanitarian and human rights law since 1 January 2013. The commission's report suggested that "acts of genocide" and ethnic cleansing may have been perpetrated by the anti-balaka against the Muslim population of CAR.
Approximately 80 percent of the country's Muslim population has been forced to flee or has been killed since September 2013. The UN and humanitarian organizations, with the assistance of French forces and AU MISCA peacekeepers, have relocated some vulnerable civilians. UNHCR estimates that 18,680 Muslims in nine threatened communities remain at "very high risk" of attack, including 5,670 in the town of Boda. A 5 August report of the UN Secretary-General highlights that the anti-balaka systematically encircle these enclaves, subject them to regular attack and cut them off from the delivery of food and medical supplies.
Religious sites, including those where displaced civilians are sheltering, have become targets of attack. On 28 May ex-Séléka fighters killed 17 civilians and wounded 30 others when they opened fire upon internally displaced persons (IDPs) at Notre Dame de Fatima church in Bangui. Following clashes with armed civilians, anti-balaka militias and French forces, on 7 July armed Muslim civilians and ex-Séléka rebels attacked St. Joseph Cathedral in Bambari, where more than 6,000 IDPs were sheltering. According to the UN at least 27 civilians were killed in the attack. On the same day a group of armed men attacked mosque in Paoua, Ouham-Pendé prefecture, killing 34 civilians.
Fighting between the anti-balaka, ex-Séléka and other armed groups has intensified northern, central and eastern prefectures, despite the signing of a ceasefire on 23 July. At least 26 civilians were killed in clashes between anti-balaka militias and ex-Séléka rebels in Batangafo, Ouham prefecture, between 30 July and 1 August. On 4 August ex-Séléka forces attacked French and AU peacekeepers in Batangafo. At least 50 ex-Séléka were killed in the ensuing exchange of fire, along with an unconfirmed number of civilians.
Over 167,000 civilians have fled to neighboring countries since January 2014, bringing the total number of CAR refugees to 402,920. There are currently more than 512,700 IDPs in CAR, including at least 87,700 people spread across more than 40 sites in Bangui. At least 2.5 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. The UN estimates that at least 2,400 civilian have been killed since December 2013, but a 26 June report of the UN Panel of Experts notes a significant under-reporting of casualties.
The transitional government, led by interim President Catherine Samba-Panza, is struggling to adequately respond to the crisis. As extreme levels of violence continue, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has warned that the permanent "de-facto partition" of the country along ethno-religious lines is a possibility.
ANALYSIS:CAR has suffered decades of poor governance, recurring instability and humanitarian crisis. Since March 2013 the state has effectively ceased to function. The interim government cannot prevent various armed groups and civilian mobs from perpetrating attacks.
Intensified fighting between anti-balaka, ex-Séléka and other armed groups, as well as between international peacekeepers and these groups, has increased the risks to civilians. Fighting between armed groups has occurred in prefectures that split the country between North and South and East and West. The country is effectively partitioned, with the anti-balaka controlling territory in western CAR and the ex-Séléka establishing control in the east. Religious and ethnic identity has also been manipulated, with communities mobilized against one another. Deadly attacks on civilians are conducted openly and without fear of sanction.
The ceasefire agreement signed on 23 July faces numerous challenges. The anti-balaka and ex-Séléka are loosely affiliated groups that do not operate under a central command. Both groups are prone to discord amongst their respective leaders and infighting between factions. Political and military elites seeking to maintain or gain power, including those linked to the ex-Séléka, anti-balaka and former President Bozizé, continue to exacerbate the crisis.
Despite the efforts of French and AU peacekeepers, civilians have not been afforded adequate protection from mass atrocity crimes. MISCA, in particular, continues to face critical operational gaps.
Accelerating the political transition and preparing to hold elections without significant improvements in security, accountability and reconciliation amongst communities will only increase the risk of further mass atrocity crimes being perpetrated.
CAR's interim government is currently unable to uphold its Responsibility to Protect and requires sustained international assistance.
INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE:Following the deadly surge of violence during late 2013, the international community intensified its response to the crisis in CAR, including passing three UN Security Council (UNSC) resolutions between October 2013 and January 2014 that emphasized the interim government's responsibility to protect the civilian population. [For responses prior to April 2014, see GCR2P's Timeline of the International Response to the Situation in CAR.]
France currently has 2,000 troops deployed in CAR under the aegis of Operation Sangaris, while the AU has deployed 5,800 MISCA peacekeepers. Three French and twenty-six AU peacekeepers have been killed since 5 December.
The EU formally launched its military operation (EUFOR-RCA) on 1 April and has approximately 700 troops on the ground. The mission is responsible for security at Bangui M'Poko airport and is also charged with protecting civilians in the 3rd and 5th districts of Bangui.
On 10 April the UNSC passed Resolution 2149, emphasizing the CAR authorities' primary responsibility to protect their population. The resolution authorized the deployment of a UN peacekeeping operation, MINUSCA, which is expected to consist of 10,000 troops and 1,800 police. MINUSCA is mandated to protect civilians, support the political transition, facilitate humanitarian assistance and promote human rights. It will assume authority from MISCA on 15 September.
On 12 June the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) noted that the intervention of the Court is now "essential," following a formal request by the transitional authorities to open an investigation into crimes committed in CAR since August 2012.
The International Contact Group for CAR met for the fifth time on 7 July and outlined a three-step process to cease hostilities and promote national dialogue and reconciliation. A three-day forum was held in Brazzaville between 21 and 23 July that led to the aforementioned cessation of hostilities agreement between the anti-balaka, ex-Seleka and representatives of five other armed groups.
NECESSARY ACTION:The interim government must publicly condemn all attacks on civilians, especially against the Muslim minority. It is essential that perpetrators responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity and other serious violations of human rights be brought to justice.
Local efforts to ease tensions between communities should be supported by international mediators and should be part of a broader strategy of working with CAR's authorities on national reconciliation. There is an urgent need for regional and international interlocutors to support the transitional government in efforts to promote disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of armed groups.
French, AU and EU forces must disarm all armed groups who threaten civilians. Vulnerable civilians, especially those in IDP encampments and besieged areas, must be robustly protected and provided adequate access to humanitarian relief. Enhanced protection must also be provided during evacuation and relocation operations.
Additional troops, including formed police units, should be expeditiously deployed. Logistical support to MISCA must be increased. There is an urgent need to increase funding for humanitarian assistance.
Re-hatted troops that will participate in MINUSCA must be strenuously vetted and trained to strictly abide by the UN Human Rights Due Diligence Policy.
Last Updated: 15 August 2014